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(He was not hired by Edison's company until 1884, primarily as a draftsman and an expert witness in patent litigations). Louis performed a nearly identical operation two years earlier, with the patient fully recovering.Latimer also did not come up with the first screw socket for the light bulb or the first book on electric lighting. Decades before that, the Spaniard Francisco Romero carried out the first successful pericardial surgery of any type, incising the pericardium to drain fluid compressing the heart.Evidence of modern peanut butter comes from US patent #306727 issued to Marcellus Gilmore Edson of Montreal, Quebec in 1884, for a process of milling roasted peanuts between heated surfaces until the peanuts reached "a fluid or semi-fluid state." As the product cooled, it set into what Edson described as "a consistency like that of butter, lard, or ointment." In 1890, George A. Louis, manufactured peanut butter and sold it out of barrels. Carver's work to improve regional farming practices was not of pioneering scientific importance and had little demonstrable impact.To see how Carver gained "a popular reputation far transcending the significance of his accomplishments," read Mackintosh's excellent article George Washington Carver: The Making of a Myth.
Such beliefs usually originate in books or articles about black history.
Detailed evidence: The not-so-real Mc Coy Also see The Fake Mc Coy and Did Somebody Say Mc Trash? (See historical notes on plasma use.) Charles Drew was not responsible for any breakthrough scientific or medical discovery; his main career achievement lay in supervising or co-supervising major programs for the collection and shipment of blood and plasma. Banneker assisted Andrew Ellicott in the survey of the federal territory, but played no direct role in the actual planning of the city.
The story of Banneker reconstructing the city design from memory after L'Enfant ran away with the plans (with the implication that the project would have failed if not for Banneker) has been debunked by historians.
Walton Lillehei (often called the "father of open heart surgery") and John Gibbon (who invented the heart-lung machine). In the US, English-born Leo Daft used a third-rail system to electrify the Baltimore & Hampden lines in 1885.
The first electrically powered subway trains, which debuted in London in the autumn of 1890, likewise drew power from a third rail.